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The researchers involved in the discovery officially published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009.
was discovered in 2004, and two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier (from the same cave in Germany, dated to circa 36,000 years ago) are among the oldest known musical instruments.For a list of notable flute performers, see List of flautists. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening.According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones.Critical variables affecting this acoustic impedance include: chimney length (hole between lip-plate and head tube), chimney diameter, and radii or curvature of the ends of the chimney and any designed restriction in the "throat" of the instrument, such as that in the Japanese Nohkan Flute.A study in which professional flutists were blindfolded could find no significant differences between flutes made from a variety of metals.The flutist changes the pitch of the sound produced by opening and closing holes in the body of the instrument, thus changing the effective length of the resonator and its corresponding resonant frequency.